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5G NG-RAN and UE identifiers

in 5G, NG-RAN identifiers

- RAN UE NGAP ID: A RAN UE NGAP ID shall be allocated so as to uniquely identify the UE over the NG interface within an gNB. When an AMF receives an RAN UE NGAP ID it shall store it for the duration of the UE-associated logical NG-connection for this UE. Once known to an AMF this is included in all UE associated NGAP signalling.

MR-DC with the 5G

in MR-DC, MR-DC with the 5G
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There are three possible MR-DC with the 5GC architectures as follow:  1. E-UTRA-NR Dual Connectivity: NG-RAN supports NG-RAN E-UTRA-NR Dual Connectivity (NGEN-DC), in which a UE is connected to one ng-eNB that acts as a MN and one gNB that acts as a SN.

E-UTRA-NR Dual Connectivity (EN-DC)

in 5G, Dual Connectivity, E-UTRA-NR Dual Connectivity, EN-DC
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E-UTRAN supports MR-DC via E-UTRA-NR Dual Connectivity (EN-DC), also called MR-DC with EPC, in which a UE is connected to one eNB that acts as a MN and one en-gNB that acts as a SN. The eNB is connected to the EPC via the S1 interface and to the en-gNB via the X2 interface. The en-gNB might also be connected to the EPC via the S1-U interface and other en-gNBs via the X2-U interface.

Dual Connectivity (DC) and Multi-Radio Dual Connectivity (MR-DC)

in 5G, Dual Connectivity, MR-DC, Multi-Radio Dual Connectivity, 4G
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E-UTRAN supports Dual Connectivity (DC) operation whereby a multiple Rx/Tx UE in RRC_CONNECTED is configured to utilise radio resources provided by two distinct schedulers, located in two eNBs connected via a non-ideal backhaul over the X2 interface

5G Xn Interface Protocol Architecture

in 5G, Xn Interface, Xn-C, Xn-U
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The Xn User plane (Xn-U) interface is defined between two NG-RAN nodes.  The transport network layer is built on IP transport and GTP-U is used on top of UDP/IP to carry the user plane PDUs.

5G NG Interface Protocol Architecture

in 5G, NG Interface, NG-C, NG-U
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The NG user plane interface (NG-U) is defined between the NG-RAN node and the UPF. The transport network layer is built on IP transport and GTP-U is used on top of UDP/IP to carry the user plane PDUs between the NG-RAN node and the UPF.

NG-U provides non-guaranteed delivery of user plane PDUs between the NG-RAN node and the UPF.

Separation of gNB-CU-CP and gNB-CU-UP

in 5G, gNB, gNB-CU-CP, gNB-CU-UP
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gNB-CU-Control Plane (gNB-CU-CP): a logical node hosting the RRC and the control plane part of the PDCP protocol of the gNB-CU for an en-gNB or a gNB. The gNB-CU-CP terminates the E1 interface connected with the gNB-CU-UP and the F1-C interface connected with the gNB-DU.

5G NG-RAN Radio Protocol Architecture

in 5G, 5G NG-RAN, 5G NR, 5G Radio Protocol Architecture
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The different sublayers used in  Radio Protocol Architecture are: Medium Access Control (MAC), Radio Link Control (RLC), Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) and Service Data Adaptation Protocol (SDAP), Radio Resource Control (RRC) and Non-Access Stratum (NAS). Where:

-The physical layer offers to the MAC sublayer transport channels;

5G NG-RAN Architecture

in 5G, 5G Architecture, NG-RAN Architecture
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gNB Central Unit (gNB-CU): a logical node hosting RRC, SDAP and PDCP protocols of the gNB or RRC and PDCP protocols of the en-gNB that controls the operation of one or more gNB-DUs. The gNB-CU terminates the F1 interface connected with the gNB-DU. 

Functional Split between NG-RAN and 5GC

in 5G, 5g-NR, NG-RAN
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The gNB and ng-eNB host the following functions:

-Functions for Radio Resource Management: Radio Bearer Control, Radio Admission Control, Connection Mobility Control, Dynamic allocation of resources to UEs in both uplink and downlink (scheduling);

5G Tool box in MATLAB: Possibilities and Limitations

in 3GPP, 5G, 5G NR, MATLAB

MATLAB has introduced its 5G Toolbox, which provides standards compliant waveforms and reference examples for modeling, simulation, and verification of the physical layer of 3GPP 5G New Radio (NR) communications systems. 5G Toolbox can be used  to design algorithms and predict end-to-end link performance of systems that conform to the 5G Release 15 standard.

Small Cell In 5G

in 5G, 5G New Radio, 5G NR, IOT, Small Cell. Blog, Femtocell
5G NR

As the need and dependency on wireless network is increasing, a stronger and faster network is required to cater to the demands of millions. The 5G networks are the next generation of mobile internet connectivity, offering faster speeds and more reliable connections on smartphones and other devices than ever before.

5GNR Reference Signals Measurement

in 5G NR, RSRP, RSRQ, RSSI

In 5G new  radio (NR) system, reference signal   measurement are used to perform cell selection, cell reselection and handover etc.  Reference Signal (RS) measurements are further classified into three measurement parameters as given

IoT Development Boards Comparison: Choosing Best Hardware and Platforms for your Consumer connected product

in IOT, NB-IoT
iot board comparison

The internet of things(IoT) is emerging at a quick speed. Reason behind is the availability of small, low-cost IoT hardware development boards. They come in practically infinite frameworks. IoT devices monitor and implement things or real-life elements, comprising industrial equipment, home appliances, buildings, cars, warehouse inventory items, and society.