Pankaj's blog

5G NG-RAN and UE identifiers

- RAN UE NGAP ID: A RAN UE NGAP ID shall be allocated so as to uniquely identify the UE over the NG interface within an gNB. When an AMF receives an RAN UE NGAP ID it shall store it for the duration of the UE-associated logical NG-connection for this UE. Once known to an AMF this is included in all UE associated NGAP signalling.

MR-DC with the 5G

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There are three possible MR-DC with the 5GC architectures as follow:  1. E-UTRA-NR Dual Connectivity: NG-RAN supports NG-RAN E-UTRA-NR Dual Connectivity (NGEN-DC), in which a UE is connected to one ng-eNB that acts as a MN and one gNB that acts as a SN.

E-UTRA-NR Dual Connectivity (EN-DC)

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E-UTRAN supports MR-DC via E-UTRA-NR Dual Connectivity (EN-DC), also called MR-DC with EPC, in which a UE is connected to one eNB that acts as a MN and one en-gNB that acts as a SN. The eNB is connected to the EPC via the S1 interface and to the en-gNB via the X2 interface. The en-gNB might also be connected to the EPC via the S1-U interface and other en-gNBs via the X2-U interface.

Dual Connectivity (DC) and Multi-Radio Dual Connectivity (MR-DC)

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E-UTRAN supports Dual Connectivity (DC) operation whereby a multiple Rx/Tx UE in RRC_CONNECTED is configured to utilise radio resources provided by two distinct schedulers, located in two eNBs connected via a non-ideal backhaul over the X2 interface

5G Xn Interface Protocol Architecture

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The Xn User plane (Xn-U) interface is defined between two NG-RAN nodes.  The transport network layer is built on IP transport and GTP-U is used on top of UDP/IP to carry the user plane PDUs.

5G NG Interface Protocol Architecture

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The NG user plane interface (NG-U) is defined between the NG-RAN node and the UPF. The transport network layer is built on IP transport and GTP-U is used on top of UDP/IP to carry the user plane PDUs between the NG-RAN node and the UPF.

NG-U provides non-guaranteed delivery of user plane PDUs between the NG-RAN node and the UPF.

Separation of gNB-CU-CP and gNB-CU-UP

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gNB-CU-Control Plane (gNB-CU-CP): a logical node hosting the RRC and the control plane part of the PDCP protocol of the gNB-CU for an en-gNB or a gNB. The gNB-CU-CP terminates the E1 interface connected with the gNB-CU-UP and the F1-C interface connected with the gNB-DU.

5G NG-RAN Radio Protocol Architecture

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The different sublayers used in  Radio Protocol Architecture are: Medium Access Control (MAC), Radio Link Control (RLC), Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) and Service Data Adaptation Protocol (SDAP), Radio Resource Control (RRC) and Non-Access Stratum (NAS). Where:

-The physical layer offers to the MAC sublayer transport channels;

5G NG-RAN Architecture

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gNB Central Unit (gNB-CU): a logical node hosting RRC, SDAP and PDCP protocols of the gNB or RRC and PDCP protocols of the en-gNB that controls the operation of one or more gNB-DUs. The gNB-CU terminates the F1 interface connected with the gNB-DU. 

Functional Split between NG-RAN and 5GC

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The gNB and ng-eNB host the following functions:

-Functions for Radio Resource Management: Radio Bearer Control, Radio Admission Control, Connection Mobility Control, Dynamic allocation of resources to UEs in both uplink and downlink (scheduling);

CES 2013: ZTE Announces 5.0 FHD Quad-core Smartphone Grand S

ZTE Grand S

ZTE has announced the world debut of the ZTE Grand S – 5.0 FHD LTE at 2013 International Consumer Electronics Show (CES). As the flagship handset in ZTE’s high-end Grand Series line of products, the ZTE Grand S is the company’s first FHD smartphone and is enabled by the Qualcomm Snapdragon S4 Pro processor. 

Ericsson: LTE to Account for 10% of All Mobile Subscriptions in Latin America By 2018

Ericsson MINI-LINK

According to the new Ericsson Mobility Report, LTE will account for some 10 percent (approximately 90 million) of all mobile subscriptions in Latin America by 2018. Company says that 14 million new mobile subscriptions were recorded in Q3 for a total of 676 million and estimates that another 230 million mobile subscriptions will be added by 2018.

Paul Beaver, Anite: Robust High Quality VoLTE Service to Drive LTE

Paul Beaver, Products Director at wireless device testing company, Anite

In an Interview with LteWorld, Paul Beaver, Director of Products at Anite, a global leader in wireless device testing technology, explained importance and challenges for VoLTE (Voice over LTE) technology. Here’s what he had to say:

Sprint to Launch Sierra Wireless LTE, WiMAX Hotspot Device

Sierra Wireless 4G LTE Tri-Fi Hotspot

Sprint and Sierra Wireless will launch a 4G Tri-Fi Hotspot on May 18. The new device supports both 4G technologies LTE and WiMAX with the additional capability to connect to a 3G network outside of 4G coverage areas.